Newsletter july 2021
Concrete Evidence of the Role of the Congolese Government in the Ethnic Cleansing of the Banyamulenge in their Homeland.
Since April 2017, an ethnic cleansing war has been taking place in the highlands of the territories of Uvira, Fizi and Mwenga in the sector of Itombwe, the main objective of which is the total uprooting of the Banyamulenge in these territories.
What is horrible and hard to believe is that the Congolese Government, whose main mission is to maintain public order and security on behalf of all the populations of the country, has been passively witnessing, for more than four years, the complete destruction of villages, the systematic looting of cattle and the mass killings of the peaceful Banyamulenge peasants by Mai-Mai militias from the Fuliru, Bembe, Nyindu and Vira tribes, in coalition with the Burundian rebels of Red-Tabara, Forebu and FNL. These crimes are being perpetrated in localities which are under the protection of soldiers of the regular Congolese army, without the latter intervening to prevent the attackers from committing these crimes.
Currently, 97 % of Banyamulenge villages from Minembwe to Rurambo, via Itombwe and Bijombo have been completely destroyed and wiped off the map of the Democratic Republic of Congo and 95 % of their cattle raided, as well as several hundred people killed by the Mai-Mai militias and the Burundian rebels of RED-Tabara, FNL and Forebu, in complicity with the soldiers of the regular army.
These soldiers are working under the supervision of the Congolese government, deceiving both the internal and international community regarding the real objective of this war, which is ethnic cleansing. They have falsely portrayed the war as being a disagreement about the destruction of fields by cows belonging to cattle breeders. In other words, for the Congolese government, the Banyamulenge being mainly herders, are being killed and driven out of the Democratic Republic of Congo because their cows have caused destruction of the fields of Bantu farmers.
This war which threatens to exterminate the Banyamulenge in the highlands of South-Kivu, is a war sponsored by the Congolese government with the objective of total uprooting the Banyamulenge on Congolese soil. The Mai-Mai and the Burundian rebels of various factions are simply agents of the Congolese government committed to this mission.
Indeed, the complicity of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo with the Mai-Mai in the context of the attacks against the Banyamulenge villages, the theft of their cattle and the killings of innocent Banyamulenge civilians was established by the Final Report of Experts of the UN of June 10, 2021. The report states: “Several members of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo were also in collusion with the Mai-Mai when the latter attacked Banyamulenge villages and stole their cattle. Six sources from the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo, leaders of civil society, local Banyamulenge leaders, people close to the Mai-Mai leaders, researchers and Monusco sources cited General Dieudonne Betechi Muhima, commander of the 12th Brigade Rapid Reaction to Minembwe since March 2020, as being a determining element of the support provided by the AFDRC to Mai-Mai groups.”
Thus, there is material proof of the role of the Congolese Government in this plan of ethnic cleansing of the Banyamulenge in their environment of origin, namely:
- The silence of the government in the face of the complete destruction of the Banyamulenge villages as well as the systematic looting of their cattle;
- The participation of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
- The silence of the government in the face of the complete destruction of the Banyamulenge villages as well as the systematic looting of their cattle.
Indeed, since 2017, the following Banyamulenge villages and social infrastructures that we present as a non-exhaustive list have been completely razed from the map of the Democratic Republic of Congo in the face of the total silence of the Congolese government in the territories of Uvira, Fizi and Mwenga in the sector of Itombwe.
I.1. Material evidences of the ethnic cleansing of the Banyamulenge in the territories of Uvira, Fizi and Mwenga (sector of Itombwe).
I.1.1. At the level of the Bijombo Groupement in the territory of Uvira.
From 2017 to May 29, 2021, more than thirty-eight Banyamulenge villages (enumerated below) in the Bavira chiefdom, in the Bijombo ‘groupement’, have been totally erased from the map of the Democratic Republic of Congo, without the government taking any account of them. In these various areas there were soldiers of the regular army who did nothing to protect the victims against the attacks of the Mai-Mai militiamen and the Burundian rebels. Similarly, they did nothing to prevent the destruction of their villages, or the looting of their livestock.
Thus, the Banyamulenge villages of Masango, Gihuha, Rubibi, Mbundamo, Gashararo I, Gashararo II, Gatoki I, Gatoki II, Bikuba, Chanzovu, Bijombo I, Bijombo II, Bijombo III, Shenge, Kagogo I, Kagogo II, Kagogo III, Kagogo IV, Kwirango, Kwirango I, Kwirango II, Mugeti, Gahuna I, Gahuna II, Kuwinkurankunzi, Kinyoni, Kanono, Gongwa, Gashigo, Murambya, Kuwagahura, Runywero, Maheta, Mukumba I, Mukumba II, Rubarati, Kinyoni and Bikinga, etc., were completely destroyed, even though most of them were located not far from FARDC positions.
During the last attacks on the villages of Murambya on 29 May 2021 seven people were killed, eleven others injured, and twenty-seven womenand their young children abducted and detained for some days as sex slaves by the assailants, who had killed some of the husbands of these women. The report of the local authorities of these villages shows that the Mai-Mai militiamen and the Burundian rebels crossed without hindrance the localities where the positions of the regular army soldiers (the AFDRC) of Gongwa, Nyarwango, Mbundamo and Murambya are located, before reaching the villages of the victims. After the attacks, they crossed the same localities of the AFDRC positions with these hostages and several hundred looted cows, without the soldiers of the regular army trying to free the hostages or save these cows from the hands of the Mai-Mai militiamen and the Burundian rebels.
These women and their minor children were released after paying the assailants a sum of money, the amount of which has not been disclosed to us. And one of these hostages reported that Gisiga, the commander of the Burundian armed group of Red-Tabara, had informed her that half of the looted cows are distributed to the soldiers of the regular army and the remaining 50% were shared between the Mai-Mai militiamen and the Burundian rebels.
I.1.2. At the level of the sector of Lulenge in the territory of Fizi.
In the sector of Lulenge in the territory of Fizi, from March 2019 until today, there are more than sixty (+60) villages that have been totally destroyed by the Mai-Mai militiamen from the Bafuliru, Babembe and Banyindu tribes, under the supervision of the soldiers of the regular army – respectively under the command of colonels Katembo and Kitenge, and General Muhima Dieudonné. Thus, the following villages were destroyed: Kwirumba, Kuwarurimba, Gaseke I, Gaseke II, Monyi I, Monyi II, Rutigita, Karongozi, Gitarama, Masha, Kuwanyamiringa, Kugatoki, Kwa Kajena, Kwa Mutungirwa, Kivumu I, Kivumu II, Kwishikiro, Kumurambi, Ruhemba I, Ruhemba II, Rudabagiza, Biziba/Mujorwa, Biziba/Kanani, Biziba/Kabeba, Biziba/Kiringa, Biziba/Samson, Biziba/Antoine, Biziba/Yasosi, Biziba/Methodist, Biziba/Serukundo, Biziba/Misago, Gasare I, Gasare II, Mubavugwa II, Kwa Sekiburugu, Mwangaza/Kabingo, Kwa Muganwa, Rubanda, Mpugamo/CEPAC, Mpugamo/Catholic, Methodist I, Musingi/CEPAC, Musingi/Comité, CADEZ, CELZA, Ndwanyi, Kwibarabara, Rugezi/Sabune, Rugezi/Badinzi, Rugezi/Bavusha, Rugezi/Gahira, Rugezi/Budamu, Timbyangoma/Gishigo, Timbyangoma/Rumanzi, Timbyangoma/Nyamudida, Nyamurombwe, Gakangara/Karani, Gakangara/Rubereti, Gakangara/Marango, Kalingi, Bidegu, Rubemba, Kalonge, etc. All these villages were destroyed while it is in Minembwe that the Headquarters of the command of the military operations of all the highlands of Fizi and Itombwe (Mwenga) is located.
During the various attacks that destroyed all these villages several Banyamulenge civilians were killed and several thousand of their cows looted by the Mai-Mai, Bembe, Fuliru and Nyindu militiamen, under the supervision of the soldiers of the regular army, who supplied them with ammunitions and weapons.
I.1.3. The sector of Tanganika in the territory of Fizi.
In this sector, from May to August 2019, the Banyamulenge villages listed below, as well as others, have been totally destroyed. The villages are Mikarati I, Mikarati II, Mikarati III, Kabara I, Kabara II, Kabara III, Kabara IV, Kabara V, Karumyo, Mizinga, Kamombo, Mutanoga, Chakira, Mutenja, Ngoma I, Ngoma II, Gitasha I, Gitasha II, Kanogo, Nyamara, Mutenja, Nyagisozi, Rugaraba, Kangwe, Nyarusanze, Batenda, etc. These villages were completely destroyed by the Mai-Mai and Burundian rebels not far from the FARDC military positions.
During these attacks several thousand cows were looted and several people were killed without the regular army soldiers based in this area intervening to protect the victims and their property.
I.1.4. The Banyanyamulenge villages destroyed in the sector of Itombwe in the territory of Mwenga.
In the Itombwe region of the territory of Mwenga, from May to October 2019, these forty three Banyamulenge villages of that region were totally destroyed by the Mai-Mai Ebuela, Aoci and Bilozebishambuke, in coalition with the Burundian rebels of Red-Tabara, while there were six miliary positions of the regular army in this area which did nothing to protect civilians against these attacks, or protect their property against destruction and looting. Kwiruru, Murambi, Bakura, Makutano, Malanda I, Malanda II, Nkango I, Nkango II, Nkango III, Nyamara, Nazareti, Bijanda I, Bijanda II, Bijanda III, Tulambo, Rushasha I, Rushasha II, Nyagisayo, Marunde I, Marunde II, Marunde III, Kivogerwa, Kuwimbogo, Kuwamakila, Gatenga, Kigazura, Mikenke I, Mikenke II, Kibundi, Gasiro I, Gasiro II, Nyabindi, Nyabihoma, Kurinjanja, Gihanama, Kuwabahanga, Kwiruru, Kusho, Lisansi, Burembo, Rukwiza, Kidasi, Bikuba, Rugabano, were completely destroyed, while most of them were located more or less one to two kilometers from the regular army military positions. Indeed, the figure in the appendix below shows us that in this region there were at least six regular army positions that were based in Mikenke, Kipupu, Nazarete, Makutano, Kuwamakira and Tabunde. These soldiers did nothing to protect the victims or their property from the assailants.
 See the statement by the President of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Felix Tshisekedi Tshilombo at the Paris Summit of May 17, 2021 on African Economies.
 One of the hostages of the Murambya attacks of May 29, 2021 revealed that a Burundian rebel commander told her that 50% of the cows looted from the Banyamulenge go the soldiers of the regular army, and another 50 % are shared between the Mai-Mai and the Burundian rebels.
 The Final Report of the United Nations Experts of 10 June 2021 on the DRC, Annex 107, paragraph 144.
 During the attacks of Murambya of 29 May 2021 the following people were killed: the chief of the locality Seruhigiza, Pastor, Rugeza and four others whose names have not otherwise been identified.
 The following women, including their young children, were abducted during these attacks: Nyakibanza and her five children after killing her husband, Munyura, and her two children, Nyaziraje and her two children, Nyandamira and her four children, Grace, Chantal, Ramu, Nyansuhurwa, Maombi and Nyakazungu, and sir Butoto, a total of ten women and fourteen children.
 The testimony of one of the women who had been kidnapped during the Murambya on an existing alliance between militiamen Mai-Mai, Burundian rebels and regular army soldiers over sharing of war booty looted from the Banyamulenge.
 Paragraph 114 of Annex 107 UN Experts’ Report S/2021/560 reveals that Dieudonné Betechi Muhima, commander of the 12th Rapid Reaction Brigade was the determining element of the support provided by the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo to Mai-Mai groups in the context of the attacks on the Banyamulenge villages and the looting of their cattle.
In this regard we will mention the Twitter of the Security Barometer of the Kivu of 10 September 2020 which reveals to us that two days before the attacks on the villages of Kahwela of 8 and 9 September 2020 during which men perished Kazayo and Superintendent, the regular army had provided the Mai-Mai munitions of war (see the Twitter of the Security Barometer in the annex).
 The following military positions were found in all parts of the Itombwe region, as can be seen from the figure in the annex, during the destruction of all the Banyamulenge villages in area, namely: Kipupu, Nazareti, Kibundi, Mikenke, Kwitala and Tabundi.
- Churches, Health Centres and Training Centres destroyed in the Itombwe Region
CELPA / Tulambo
CF Mother Warrior
CELPA / Kigazura
Institut Mahuno/ Tulambo.
CS from Bakura
CELPA / Marunde I
Biblical Institute / Tulambo.
CS from Malanda
CELPA / Marunde II
CELMC / Mikenke II
E.P. Marunde II
CEPAC / Kihanama
CELPA / Rushasha I
Nazareth Kukwe Institute
CEPAC / Kivogerwa
CELPA / Rushasha II
CELMC / Kasiro I
CELMC / Kasiro II
CELPA / Nyamara
CEMLC / Ruvumera
CADC / Linjanja
Nkango Hope Institute
CELPA / Bijanda I
CELPA / Bijanda II
CELPA / Nkango I
CELPA / Nkango II
CELPA / Nkango III
CELPA / Lisansi
CELMC / Bakura
CELMC / Bikuba
CELPA / Murambi
I.1.5. Rurambo, in the chiefdom of Bafuliru in the territory of Uvira
The Banyamulenge villages in this area were completely burned by the Mai-Mai and Burundian rebels during the months of March and April 2021, and all the inhabitants forced to flee. These include the villages of: Kahundwe, Rwikubo, Kageregere, Marungu, Murambi I, Murambi II, Rukuka, Gitembe I, Gitembe II, Nyamarongwe/Bibangwa, Bijige/Bibangwa, Gahusi/Bibangwa, Nyabujeje/Bibangwa.
During these attacks, thirteen people were killed, including Mrs. Sophie Nyandorimana, Ndasimurwa Kazingo, Mutuganyi Kazingo, Bisimwa, Karume Ndasunikwa, Nyiramatereka Anastasie, Munyamahoro Gasarazi, Mudakuka Rusomoka, Kagufi Ndwanyi, Rudahirwa Kabuti, Nyagabano Rusi, Mporana Sebadege, Sebashora Byinshi, and all the property, consisting of cows, sheep, goats and other basic necessities was looted by the assailants.
There have been no reports of intervention by regular army personnel in an attempt to protect the victims and their property during or after these attacks.
II.2. Some cases of the involvement of the regular army in the war of ethnic cleansing of the Banyamulenge.
- Between May and October 2019, more than forty-six Banyamulenge villages in the sector of Itombwe were destroyed by the Mai-Mai militias and the Burundian rebels of Red-Tabara, while these villages were surrounded by six FARDC positions that did not dare to intervene to protect the victims from the Mai-Mai attacks, or deter the assailants from destroying the villages and looting the livestock.
- On 03 October 2019, the soldiers of the regular army of the Makutano Position directly attacked three Banyamulenge civilians by forcing them to abandon their herd of three hundred (300) cattle to the Mai-Mai who had just attacked their village of Nkango in Itombwe;
- Between May and July 2019, radio communications from Mai-Mai Bilozebishambuke were intercepted by some FARDC elements on the exchanges related to the instructions given to the Mai-Mai militias by Colonel Katembo, then Commander of the 12th Rapid Intervention Brigade, concerning the attacks that these Mai-Mai militias were to carry out against the Minembwe region.
- In October 2019, Mr. Rutiririza Bibogo was coldly shot dead in Mikenke market by a regular army soldier without the perpetrator of this murder being prosecuted to date.
- As of 18 April 2020, the assassination of Mr Adoni and the ladies Nyamutarutwa and Nyamwiza was organized and supervised by the soldiers of the Kivumu position on the outskirts of Minembwe, where the victims were lured into their cassava fields by these soldiers promising to ensure their safety, while they were in the process of sourcing food. When the victims were nearing the end of their work and the soldiers had just withdrawn to their position promising them that they were out of danger, the Mai-Mai burst onto them. These ladies were subjected to inhumane rape and physical mutilation, before being murdered and their unfortunate companion Adoni was shot dead by soldiers of the regular army. This was confirmed by the survivor of this carnage, the old lady Anna Nyansasirwa who spent two days in the hands of these killers, before being released with a message to give the Banyamulenge to leave Congo if they do not want to be massacred.
- During the attack on the Mikenke Banyamulenge Camp for displaced persons on 28 May 2020 by the Mai-Mai Ebuila group, the spokesman of Operation Sukola II South Kivu, Captain Kasereka Dieudonné, in an attempt to confuse national and international opinion on the objective of this attack, alleged in his communiqué on this attack, that the victims were hit by stray bullets, as if the said attack was not aimed at this camp of displaced Banyamulenge. Seven people were injured in the attack, including the old lady Uzie who later died of her injuries at the Bukavu General Hospital during the month of June 2020.
- On 18 June 2020, the FARDC of the Mikenke Position attacked the Mikenke camp for internally displaced persons by wounding Mr. Buhunira son of Rwandikiye and Mr. Bukuru son of Rudahirwa on the pretext of searching for Twirwaneho (civilian self-defence group) elements who had allegedly infiltrated the camp of displaced persons.
- During the Kahwela attacks of 08 and 09 September 2020, during which two civilians, including Superintendent and Kazayo were killed, the Twitter message of the Kivu Security Barometer the day after these attacks revealed that according to a source within the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (AFDRC), and several sources close to the Mai-Mai, AFDRC members had handed over ammunitions to the Mai-Mai groups two days before the offensive, near Mikenge (Mwenga territory, South Kivu, DRC).
- In Bibokoboko, on 10 March 2021, an AFDRC soldier shot dead two Banyamulenge men who had just returned from the Lusenda market, Mr. Ruzigamanzi Sadock and Mr. Bigaraba Zacharie.
- In Bibokoboko on 07 April 2021, three Banyamulenge civilians, namely John Ndisabiye, Ntarambirwa and Nzayiramya, were coldly murdered by AFDRC elements when they were returning from pursuing their cows that had been looted by the Mai-Mai, while the same soldiers who murdered them had not intervened to prevent the looting of their victims’ cows;
- As of 09 April 2021, the village of Kabingo was attacked by the Mai-Mai militias from Lulenge and Milimba. While the young Banyamulenge civilians tried to repel this attack, the FARDC soldiers intervened to rescue the Mai-Mai, killing four civilians among the young Banyamulenge civilian self-defense members including, Ndatabaye Mugara, Ruzigama, Nsengiyumva Buhiga and Musafiri Alexandre. Reliable local sources indicate that the bodies of the victims were brutally mutilated by AFDRC soldiers, so much so that it was difficult to look their corpses.
- As of May 29, 2021, the Mai-Mai and the Burundian rebels of RED-Tabara crossed the lands of Gongwa, Murambya, Mbundamo and Nyarwango controlled by the regular army soldiers to go and destroy the Banyamulenge villages of Murambya/Catholic, Murambya/Kwijimbo, Kanongo, Rushimisha, Muturirwa, Nyakirango and Nyarwango, where they killed seven people including chief Seruhigiza, Pasteur, Rugeza and four other people whose names have not been otherwise identified, wounding eleven people and taking hostage twenty-seven people, both women and minor children, including the lady Nyakibanza and her five children (after killing her husband), Munyura and her two children, Nyaziraje and her two children , Nyandamira and his four children, Neema, Chantal, Ramu, Nyansuhurwa, Maombi and Nyakazungu, and Mr. Butoto: in all ten women and fourteen children.
- The shootings ordered by the Commander of the Rapid Reaction Brigade of Minembwe, General Patrick Opia and the Commander of the Third Defense Zone, General Philemon Yav on June 30, 2021 of the peaceful Banyamulenge civilians of Minembwe is another proof of the desire of the Congolese military hierarchy to put an end once and for all to the presence of the Banyamulenge in the highlands of the South-Kivu. During these attacks on the defenseless civilian population, the ladies Nyirantabara, Nyiramuhoza Bibiane, Royi Mituzo and Nyirantonesha were killed. Mr. Bitwenge, another young Munyamulenge man in his thirties was killed by the same soldiers of the 12th Brigade during the same evening. Two days earlier, the soldiers of the same Rapid Reaction Brigade had just killed Mr. Nzabisha, again with complete impunity. All these victims were killed simply, because they are Banyamulenge who, according to the viewpoint of these soldiers, must be erased from Congolese soil.
- To these ethnic killings, we must mention also the attacks with batons and sticks ordered by the same Brigade against women sitting-in in front of its office, protesting against the arbitrary and illegal arrests of which the young Banyamulenge are victims by the Congolese army. During these attacks several women were seriously injured, including among others, Narukundo Namuco (45 years), Namatungo Resa (75 years), Nagitamu Elisée (39 years) Rahaba Nampundu (54 years), Niyirera Francine (58 years), Nanzanika Nambonwa (42 years), Namugisha Solange (32 years), Nankunzi Namahoro (50 years), Nantore Dibora (60 years), Nakirindo Jeanne (33 years), Nanduhura Aimée (39 years) and Natibura Marciane (73 years): all were interned at the Minembwe Hospital because of the serious injuries that these soldiers inflicted during these attacks.
It should be stressed that all attacks by the Mai-Mai and their Burundian allies against Banyamulenge civilians are always followed by a disinformation release from the spokesman of Operation Sukola II, South Kivu, Captain Kasereka Dieudonné, with the aim of diverting the attention of national and international opinion to the reality of this war.
Otherwise, the war that the Mai-Mai militias and Burundian rebels are waging against the Banyamulenge is a war waged by the Congolese government against the Banyamulenge, the aim of which is to drive them out of Congolese soil. The Mai-Mai militias and the Burundian rebels being only agents in the service of the Congolese state, and this is the very reason for all the silence on the part of the Congolese government in the face of the tragedy of extermination of this victim community: May the Lord God come to their aid.
In view of all the above, the following recommendations are imperative:
With regard to the Congolese government
- Acknowledge that the large-scale killings of the members of the Banyamulenge civilian population throughout the uvira, Fizi and Itombwe highlands in the territory of Mwenga, the total destruction of their villages in all areas of their homes and the systematic looting of their livestock, constitute irrefutable evidences that this war is aimed at the total uprooting of the Banyamulenge on Congolese soil.
- To recognize that its conscious failure to acknowledge the presence of the Burundian rebels in this war against the Banyamulenge sufficiently demonstrates its unambiguous desire to use them to uproot the victims on the soil of the DRC.
- Recognize that the links of proven complicity between the soldiers of the regular army and the Mai-Mai militias and the Burundian rebels of various factions in this war against the Banyamulenge, constitute sufficient evidence that all these fighters are agents in the service of the Congolese government in this project of ethnic cleansing of the Banyamulenge on Congolese soil.
- Immediately cease supporting all the armed groups involved in this macabre plan and effectively protect the Banyamulenge from the full realization of this despicable plan which is in its final phase, under the supervision of the Congolese armed forces.
- Launch large-scale operations against the Burundian rebels of RED-Tabara, FNL and Forebu and their allies Mai-Mai, perpetrators of the mass killings of innocent civilians, the destruction of villages on a large scale and the systematic looting of the cows of the Banyamulenge civilian populations, in order to save the victims against the total completion of this ethnic cleansing plan to which they are subjected, under the FARDC’s complicit eye.
- Initiate prosecutions against all FARDC officers who played any role in this tragedy.
- Protect the victims of this human tragedy by restoring them to their respective environments of origin with guarantees of effective security.
- Consider the repatriation of refugees from this war who have fled to foreign countries in conditions of effective security.
- Establish permanent mechanisms for reconciliation between local communities in the highlands.
- Set up judicial mechanisms to repair the damage suffered by the various victims of this war.
To the international community
- Note that there is a large-scale ethnic cleansing of the Banyamulenge in the highlands of the South Kivu Provence.
- Note the unambiguous role of the Congolese government in the tragedy that threatens to exterminate the Banyamulenge in their environment of origin.
- Condemn the complicit silence of the Monusco contingent in this tragedy that threatens to exterminate the Banyamulenge in their environment of origin.
- Consider, as far as possible, an international intervention to protect the victims of this plan of ethnic cleansing, because there is a just cause that requires this intervention.
- Consider the prosecution of the intellectual and material authors of crimes committed in this war on the basis of the mechanisms of the International Criminal Court.
Thus, you will have effectively protected the victims of this war and avenged the memory of those who have been unjustly killed.
- Twitter of the Security Barometer of Kivu of 10 September 2020 on the Mai-Mai attack of the Banyamulenge villages of Kahwela on 8 and 9 September 2020.
- UN Reports
- The Final report of the Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of Congo of June 10, 2021, Annex 107, para. 114.
- Testimony of Mrs Anna Nyansasirwa, survivor of the Kivumu massacre.
- The testimony of one of the women who had been kidnapped during the Murambya on an existing alliance between militiamen Mai-Mai, Burundian rebels and regular army soldiers over sharing of war plunder looted from the Banyamulenge.
- Diagram of the Itombwe area/Mai-Mai attacks and AFRDC Positions
 The photos of the two ladies Nyamutarutwa and Nyamwiza show that they were horribly killed after being wickedly raped and physically mutilated.
 According to local sources, Mr. Adoni was killed by regular army soldiers when he tried to warn the ladies Nyamwiwa, Nyamutarutwa and Nyansansirwa at their fields, that the Mai-Mai had just arrived.
 The Twitter of the Kivu security barometer on the complicity of regular army soldiers in attacks on villages in Kwahwela of 08 and 09 2020.
 Threats that the soldiers of the 12th Rapid Reaction Brigade made to the civilian population of Minembwe during the attacks of July 1, 2021.
 When the Mikenke IDP camp was attacked by the Mai-Mai Ebuila group, and that seven people were seriously injured, including the old lady Uzie who died from injuries at the general hospital in Bukavu, Kasereka jusfied the consequences of this attack on the victims as having been caused by stray bullets as if the attack was directed elsewhere.